Journal cover Journal topic
Ocean Science An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 2.539 IF 2.539
  • IF 5-year value: 3.129 IF 5-year
  • CiteScore value: 2.78 CiteScore
  • SNIP value: 1.217 SNIP 1.217
  • IPP value: 2.62 IPP 2.62
  • SJR value: 1.370 SJR 1.370
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 48 Scimago H
    index 48
  • h5-index value: 32 h5-index 32
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 29 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 29 Jan 2020

Review status
A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal OS.

Model for leisure boat activities and emissions – implementation for the Baltic Sea

Lasse Johansson1, Erik Ytreberg4, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen1, Erik Fridell2, K. Martin Eriksson4, Maria Lagerström4, Ilja Maljutenko3, Urmas Raudsepp3, Vivian Fischer6, and Eva Roth5 Lasse Johansson et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 41133 Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 3Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 12616 Tallinn, Estonia
  • 4Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 41296, Sweden
  • 5University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs Vej 9-10, 6700, Denmark
  • 6Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, Germany

Abstract. The activities and emissions from leisure boats at the Baltic Sea have been modelled in a comprehensive approach for the first time, using a new simulation model leisure boat emissions and activities simulator (BEAM). The model utilizes survey data to characterize the national leisure boat fleets. Leisure boats have been categorized based on their size, usage and engine specifications and for these sub-categories emission factors for NOx, PM2.5, CO, NMVOCs and releases of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from anti-fouling paints have been estimated according to literature values. The modelling approach also considers the temporal and spatial distribution of leisure boat activities, which are applied to each simulated leisure boat separately. According to our results the CO and NMVOC emissions from leisure boats, as well as Cu and Zn released from antifouling paints, are significant when compared against the emissions originating from registered commercial shipping in the Baltic Sea. CO emissions equal 70 % of the registered shipping emissions and NMVOC emissions equal 160 % when compared against the modelled results at the Baltic Sea in 2014. Modelled NOx and PM2.5 from the leisure boats are less significant compared to the registered shipping emissions. The emissions from leisure boats are concentrated on the summer months of June, July and August and are released in the vicinity of inhabited coastal areas. Given the large emission estimates for leisure boats, this commonly overlooked source of emissions should be further investigated in greater detail.

Lasse Johansson et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Login for Authors/Topic Editors] [Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Lasse Johansson et al.

Lasse Johansson et al.


Total article views: 295 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
228 66 1 295 6 7
  • HTML: 228
  • PDF: 66
  • XML: 1
  • Total: 295
  • BibTeX: 6
  • EndNote: 7
Views and downloads (calculated since 29 Jan 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 29 Jan 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 169 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 168 with geography defined and 1 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1



No saved metrics found.


No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 27 May 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Very little is currently known about the activities and emissions of private leisure boats. To change this, a new model was created (BEAM). The model was used for the Baltic Sea to estimate leisure boat emissions, also considering antifouling paint leach. When compared against commercial shipping, the modelled leasure boat emissions were seen to be surprisingly large for some pollutant species, and these emissions heavily concentrated on coastal inhabitated areas during summer and early autumn.
Very little is currently known about the activities and emissions of private leisure boats. To...