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Ocean Science An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-48
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
19 Apr 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Ocean Science (OS).
Modeling of ships as a source of underwater noise
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen1, Lasse Johansson1, Mattias Liefvendahl2,3, Rickard Bensow2, Peter Sigray3, Martin Östberg3, Ilkka Karasalo3, Mathias Andersson3, Heikki Peltonen4, and Jukka Pajala4 1Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
2Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Underwater Technology, Defence and Security, Systems and Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency, 16490 Stockholm, Sweden
4Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. In this paper, a methodology is presented for modeling underwater noise emissions from ships based on realistic vessel activity in the Baltic Sea area. This paper combines the Wittekind noise source model with the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) in order to produce regular updates for underwater noise from ships. This approach allows the construction of noise source maps, but requires parameters which are not commonly available from commercial ship technical databases. For this reason, alternative methods to fill in the required information were necessary. Most of the parameters needed contain information which are available during the STEAM model runs, but features describing propeller cavitation are not easily recovered for the world fleet. Baltic Sea ship activity data was used to generate noise source maps for commercial shipping. Containerships and bulk cargo ships were identified as the most significant source of underwater noise, with a significant potential for increasing contribution to future noise emissions.
Citation: Jalkanen, J.-P., Johansson, L., Liefvendahl, M., Bensow, R., Sigray, P., Östberg, M., Karasalo, I., Andersson, M., Peltonen, H., and Pajala, J.: Modeling of ships as a source of underwater noise, Ocean Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-48, in review, 2018.
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen et al.
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen et al.
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen et al.

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Short summary
This paper presents an implementation of an underwater noise emission module in Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model. The model is based on real shipping activity, as described by the vessel navigation systems, and combines it with technical description of each ship. The methodology described facilitates the description of underwater noise as emission maps, which describe the energy emitted to the water. This enables regular reporting of shipping noise and facilitates further research.
This paper presents an implementation of an underwater noise emission module in Ship Traffic...
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