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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 18 Jan 2019

Research article | 18 Jan 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Ocean Science (OS).

Evaluation of Arctic Ocean surface salinities from SMOS and two CMEMS reanalyses against in-situ data sets

Jiping Xie1, Roshin P. Raj1, Laurent Bertino1,2, Annette Samuelsen1,2, and Tsuyoshi Wakamatsu1,2 Jiping Xie et al.
  • 1Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, N5006 Bergen, Norway
  • 2Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway

Abstract. Although the stratification of the upper Arctic Ocean is mostly salinity-driven, the sea surface salinity (SSS) is still poorly known in the Arctic, due to its strong variability and the sparseness of in-situ observations. Recently, two gridded SSS products have been derived from the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, independently developed by the Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC) in Spain and the Ocean Salinity Expertise Center (CECOS) of the Centre Aval de Traitemenent des Donnees SMOS (CATDS) in France, respectively. In parallel, there are two reanalysis products providing the Arctic SSS in the framework of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services (CMEMS), one global, and another regional product. While the regional Arctic TOPAZ4 system assimilates a large set of sea-ice and ocean observations with an Ensemble Kalman Filter, the global reanalysis combines in-situ and satellite data using a multivariate ensemble optimal interpolation method. In this study, focused on the Arctic Ocean, these four salinity products, together with the climatology both World Ocean Atlas (WOA) of 2013 and Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC), are evaluated against in-situ datasets during 2011–2013. For the validation the in-situ observations are divided in two; those that have been assimilated and those that have not. The deviations of SSS between the different products and against the in-situ observations show largest disagreements below the sea-ice and in the marginal ice zone (MIZ), especially during the summer months. In the Beaufort Sea, the summer SSS from the BEC product has the smallest – saline – bias (~0.6 psu) with the smallest root mean squared difference (RSMD) of 2.6 psu. This suggests a potential value of assimilating of this product into the forthcoming Arctic reanalyses. Keywords: Arctic Ocean; sea surface salinity; SMOS; reanalysis; absolute deviation;

Jiping Xie et al.
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Jiping Xie et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Focused on the Arctic sea surface salinity (SSS), two gridded SMOS products, two CMEMS reanalyzed products, and two climatologies (PHC and WOA) are evaluated by intercomparison and against in-situ data during the years of 2011–2013. The quantitative SSS evaluation also sheds light on the uncertainty analyzing of the different products, which also give useful information needed for the assimilation of the SMOS SSS products into ocean forecast/reanalysis systems at next.
Focused on the Arctic sea surface salinity (SSS), two gridded SMOS products, two CMEMS...