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Ocean Science An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
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Research article
04 Apr 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Ocean Science (OS) and is expected to appear here in due course.
The dynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the outer shelf and slope of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean
Irina I. Pipko1,2, Svetlana P. Pugach1,2, Igor P. Semiletov1,2,3, Leif G. Anderson4, Natalia E. Shakhova2,3, Örjan Gustafsson5,6, Irina A. Repina7, Eduard A. Spivak1, Alexander N. Charkin1,2, Anatoly N. Salyuk1,2, Kseniia P. Shcherbakova1,2, Elena V. Panova2, and Oleg V. Dudarev1,2 1V. I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3International Arctic Research Center, University Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
4Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 412 96, Sweden
5Department of Environmental Sci ence and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden
6Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden
7A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017, Russia
Abstract. The Arctic now is undergoing dramatic changes, which cover the entire range of natural processes; from extreme increases in the temperatures of air, soil, and water, to changes in the cryosphere, the biodiversity of Arctic waters, and land vegetation. Small changes in the largest marine carbon pool, the dissolved inorganic carbon pool, can have profound impact on the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the feedback of this flux to climate. Knowledge of relevant processes in the Arctic seas improves the evaluation and projection of the carbon cycle dynamics under conditions of rapid climate change.

Investigation of the CO2 system in the outer shelf and continental slope waters of the Eurasian Arctic seas (the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian seas) during 2006, 2007, and 2009 revealed a general trend in the surface water pCO2 distribution, which manifested as an increase in pCO2 values eastward. Existence of this trend was determined by different oceanographic and biogeochemical regimes in the western and eastern parts of the study area; the trend is likely increasing due to a combination of factors determined by contemporary change in the Arctic climate, each change in turn evoked a series of synergistic effects. A high-resolution in situ investigation of the carbonate system parameters of the four Arctic seas was carried out in the warm season of 2007, which was characterized by the next-to-lowest historic sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean to that date. The study showed the different responses of the seawater carbonate system to the environment changes in the western vs. the eastern Eurasian Arctic seas. The large open, highly-productive water area in the northern Barents Sea enhances atmospheric CO2 uptake. In contrast, a growing CO2 evasion occurs in the outer shelf and slope waters of the East Siberian Arctic seas as a result of the increasing influence of river runoff and degradation of terrestrial organic matter, in combination with the high surface-water temperature due to the warm air temperature and decreasing albedo during sea ice free conditions.

This investigation shows the importance of processes that vary on small scales, both in time and space, for estimating the air-sea exchange of CO2. It stresses the need for high-resolution coverage of ocean observations as well as time series. Furthermore, time series must include multi-year studies in the dynamic regions of the Arctic Ocean during these times of environmental change.

Citation: Pipko, I. I., Pugach, S. P., Semiletov, I. P., Anderson, L. G., Shakhova, N. E., Gustafsson, Ö., Repina, I. A., Spivak, E. A., Charkin, A. N., Salyuk, A. N., Shcherbakova, K. P., Panova, E. V., and Dudarev, O. V.: The dynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the outer shelf and slope of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean, Ocean Sci. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Irina I. Pipko et al.
Irina I. Pipko et al.


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