Imprint of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling in past and future climate
Summary: The impact of external climate forcing on the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems is investigated for the recent past and future. Under increased radiative forcing, upwelling-favourable winds should strengthen due to unequal heating of land and oceans. However, coastal upwelling simulated in ensembles of climate simulations do not show any imprint of external forcing neither for the past millennium nor for the future, with the exception of the strongest future scenario.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2899-2930, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2899-2015, 2015
Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007–2013
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2863-2898, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2863-2015, 2015
Tidal elevation, current and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2831-2861, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2831-2015, 2015
Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercool under-ice ocean boundary-layers
Summary: Measurements of turbulent heat fluxes in tidally modulated flow of supercool seawater under Antarctic land-fast sea ice show that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing. Also, the conditions cause platelet ice growth to form on the underside of the sea ice which increases the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with to ice without platelets.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2807-2829, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2807-2015, 2015
Multivariate extreme value analysis of storm surges in SCS on peak over threshold method
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2783-2805, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2783-2015, 2015
Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2743-2782, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2743-2015, 2015
Compensation between meridional flow components of the AMOC at 26° N
Summary: The ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is predicted by climate models to slow down in this century, resulting in reduced transport of heat northward to mid-latitudes. At 26N, the Atlantic MOC has been measured continuously for the past decade (2004-2014). In this paper, we discuss the 10-year record of variability, identifying the origins of the continued reducing trend in the overturning, and discuss newly observed compensation between components on sub-annual timescales.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2705-2741, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2705-2015, 2015
The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian monsoon revisited
Summary: In this paper, we use the vertical water mass transport data provided by a high-resolution global ocean simulation to study the western Arabian Sea coastal upwelling system. Our results show that: 1). no significant long-term trend is detected in the upwelling time series. 2). the impact of Indian summer monsoon on the simulated upwelling is weak. 3). the upwelling is strongly affected by the sea level pressure gradient and the air temperature gradient.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2683-2704, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2683-2015, 2015
Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups
Summary: A collection of tools and techniques are described which allow small research groups to deliver and utilize standardized web-services for ocean and meteorological model data. This allows users to search for data across multiple data providers, preview the data, and access data in a consistent way, resulting in more efficient and effective use of these data.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2655-2682, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2655-2015, 2015
Research priorities in support of ocean monitoring and forecasting at the Met Office
Summary: The Met Office provides a range of services in the marine environment. To support these services, and to ensure they evolve to meet the demands of users and are based on the best available science, a number of scientific challenges need to be addressed. The paper summarises the key challenges, and highlights some priorities for the ocean monitoring and forecasting research group at the Met Office.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2617-2653, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2617-2015, 2015
Effect of gas-transfer-velocity parameterization choice on CO2 air–sea fluxes in the North Atlantic and European Arctic
Summary: We used a recently developed software tool, FluxEngine, to calculate monthly net carbon air-sea flux for the extratropical North Atlantic, European Arctic and global values using several available parameterizations of gas transfer velocity of different dependence of wind speed. The aim of the study is to constrain the uncertainty caused by the choice of parameterization in the North Atlantic, a large sink of CO2 and a region with good measurement coverage, characterized by strong winds.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2591-2616, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2591-2015, 2015
The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2565-2589, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2565-2015, 2015
Seasonal hydrography and surface outflow in a fjord with deep sill: the Reloncavi fjord, Chile
Summary: The upper layer of the Reloncavi fjord, Chile shows a continuous stratification year-round. Despite that, the vertical salt flux seem to balanced with the horizontal salt flux maintaining the amount of salt into the fjord in a flushing time of about 3 days. Here, winds and the basin-scale oscillations seems to play a key role seasonally controlled.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2535-2564, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2535-2015, 2015
Effect of the North Equatorial Counter Current on the generation and propagation of Internal Solitary Waves off the Amazon shelf (SAR observations)
Summary: Satellite imagery reveals intense Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) seen hundreds of kilometers from the Amazon shelf and extending for 500 km into the open ocean (propagating above 3 m/s, amongst the fastest ever recorded). Seasonality is discussed in light of the North Equatorial Counter Current, and a late disintegration of the Internal Tide (IT) is investigated based on climatological data. A late disintegration of the IT may explain other ISW observations in the world’s oceans.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2497-2534, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2497-2015, 2015
Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea
Summary: Using measured, modeled and reanalysis wave data and reanalysis wind data, we show that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) plays a role in the variability of wave climate of the eastern Arabian Sea (AS). The change in wind field over the AS due to IOD influences the generation or dissipation of wave field and hence causes the decrease in northwest short period waves during positive IOD and increase during negative IOD.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2473-2496, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2473-2015, 2015
IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System
Summary: The Spanish Institute of Oceanography supports different operational programs in order to observe and measure the ocean characteristics. Their combination allows to give responses to ocean research activities and marine ecosystems management, as well as official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2455-2472, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2455-2015, 2015
River bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea – Daugava River plume in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea
Summary: Remote sensing imagery and numerical model study of river bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea. Showed anti-cyclonically rotating bulge during the studied low wind period in Gulf of Riga. In about 7-8 days the bulge grew up to 20 km in diameter, before being diluted. Both model and satellite images showed river water mainly contained in the bulge. Study show significant effect of the wind in the evolution of the river bulge, even if the wind speed was moderate (3-4 m s-1).
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2423-2454, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2423-2015, 2015
Effects of lateral processes on the seasonal water stratification of the Gulf of Finland: 3-D NEMO-based model study
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2395-2421, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2395-2015, 2015
Continuous seiche in bays and harbors
Summary: Bays and harbors naturally resonate with standing waves also known as seiches. Seiches are usually considered temporary, however we identify small amplitude, continuously present seiches in 6 bays around the Pacific and suggest that tidally--forced shelf--resonances are a primary driver of continuous seiches.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2361-2394, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2361-2015, 2015
Volume transport and mixing of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow from one year of moored measurements
Summary: One-year long moored measurements of currents and hydrographic properties in the overflow region of the Faroe Bank Channel have provided a more accurate observational-based estimate of the volume transport, entrainment and eddy diffusivities associated with the overflow plume. The data set resolves the temporal variability and covers the entire lateral and vertical extent of the plume.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2315-2359, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2315-2015, 2015
Impact of vertical and horizontal advection on nutrient distribution in the South East Pacific
Summary: Vertical velocity in the ocean makes an important contribution to the modulation of marine ecosystems through its impact on fluxes of nutrients and phytoplankton. Here, we estimate full 3D current velocity fields from an observation-based data product. The 3D currents are used to force a set of particle-tracking (Lagrangian) experiments. The Lagrangian results show that the impact of vertical advection on nutrient redistribution is as high as 30% of the contribution of horizontal advection.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2257-2281, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2257-2015, 2015
Seasonal renewal time variability in the Curonian Lagoon caused by atmospheric and hydrographical forcing
Summary: The manuscript explores the importance of physical forcing on the exchange mechanisms and the renewal time in the Curonian Lagoon over ten years. The influence of ice cover on the exchange rates has been explored. Finally, the influence of water level fluctuations and river discharge has been studied. It has been found that ice cover is surprisingly not very important for changes in renewal time. The single most important factor is river discharge.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2043-2072, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2043-2015, 2015