Investigation of suitable sites for Wave Energy Converters around Sicily (Italy)
Summary: The paper describes the analysis of wave energy along the coasts of Sicily (Italy). A third-generation model was adopted to reconstruct the wave data along the coast over a period of 14 years. The analysis on the wave energy allowed to characterise the most energetic zones and to individuate 8 hot-spots suitable for the implementation of Wave Energy Converter farms.
Constraining parameters in state-of-the-art marine pelagic ecosystem models – is it actually feasible with typical observations of standing stocks?
Summary: Marine biogeochemical ocean models are embedded into earth system models - which are, to an increasing degree, applied to project the fate of our warming world. These biogeochemical models generally depend on poorly constrained model parameters. In this study we investigate the the demands on observations for an objective estimation of such parameters. A major result is that even modest noise (10%) inherent to observations can hinder the assignment of reasonable parameters.
Long-term variability of the South Adriatic circulation and phytoplankton biomass in relation to large-scale climatic pattern
Summary: The impact of climate change on the SAG circulation and its ecosystem is studied. The circulation in the South Adriatic was sustained by the wind forcing although the effect of vorticity advection, cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic BiOS. Winter convection, deep water formation and spring blooms are stronger during the NAO+. Depending on the frequency of windy days, the subtropical the subpolar biological productivity regimes likely exist in the south Adriatic.
Spatio-temporal variability of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton in the Mediterranean Sea from satellite ocean colour data of SeaWiFS
Summary: We describe the seasonal and year-to-year variability of the spatial distribution of the Phytoplankton Size Classes (PSCs) in the Mediterranean Sea using the time series of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) space observations (1998 to 2010). We used a chlorophyll-a based model to estimate the phytoplankton composition. Our results, based on ocean colour data, confirm the seasonal and inter-annual pattern of phytoplankton community observed from in situ data and in previous studies.
Eddy Surface properties and propagation at Southern Hemisphere western boundary current systems
Summary: Oceanic eddies are closed circulation features that transport water between regions, taking part in oceans’ heat and salt balance. We here perform a comparative eddy census in the East Australian, the Agulhas and the Brazil Currents. We find that eddy propagation in all systems is steered by the local mean flow and bathymetry. Also, eddies present a geographic segregation according to size. Investigating eddies’ propagation helps to better understand their effect in local mixing.
Atmosphere–ocean interactions in the Greenland Sea during solar cycles 23–24, 2002–2011
Summary: The recent period of exceptionally low solar activity has allowed a new approach to relating solar activity and climate. Analysis of daily sea surface temperature fields in the Greenland Sea from 2002-2011 shows that the day-to-day variability of the field during the solar low is significantly different, due to variability in the passage of weather systems. The influence of variations in the solar ultraviolet band acting in the stratosphere provides a credible mechanism for this difference.
Sea surface height and mixed layer depth responses to sea surface temperature in northwestern Pacific subtropical front zone from spring to summer
Summary: We made match-up datasets of satellite sea surface temperature(SST), sea level anomaly(SLA),and in situ mixed layer depth(MLD). Variations of SLA and MLD across subtropical front were examined. The steric component of SLA dominant the seasonal variations of SLA. Correlation betwwen SLA and SST is 0.76. Negative correlation between MLD and SST provide a feasibility to retrieval MLD using surface parameters.
Impact of currents on surface fluxes computation and their feedback on coastal dynamics
Summary: The paper studies the impact of the use of relative winds (i.e. winds minus ocean currents) to compute heat and momentum fluxes at sea surface. This was done in an area interested by mesoscale eddies and by a local coastal upwelling.
Impact is relevant both for heat and momentum fluxes, inferring respectively on surface temperature (improved) and on currents patterns and magnitude.
Currents in SW part shows a feedback on itself through momentum fluxes, also modyfing upwelling patterns.
Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced ocean thermal changes using Argo data – Part 2: Estimating air–sea heat fluxes and ocean heat content changes
Summary: 1. TCs are responsible for 1.87 PW (11.05 W/m2) of heat transfer annually from the global ocean to the atmosphere during storm passage (0-3 days) on a global scale. Of this total, 1.05±0.20 PW (4.80±0.85 W/m2) is caused by TS/TD and 0.82±0.21 PW (6.25±1.5 W/m2) is caused by hurricanes.
2.The net ocean heat uptake caused by all storms is 0.34 PW (4-20 days mean). Hurricanes induce 0.75±0.25 PW (5.98±2.1 W/m2) net heat gain, and TS/TD leads to 0.41±0.21 PW (1.90±0.96 W/m2) net heat loss.
Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced ocean thermal changes using Argo data – Part 1: Methods and results
Summary: 1. Argo floats were used to examine tropical cyclone (TC)-induced ocean thermal changes on the global scale by comparing temperature profiles before and after TC passage.
2. Global-average of the vertical structure of the average ocean thermal response for two different categories: tropical storms/depressions (TS/TD) and hurricanes were presented.
3. Significant differences between weak storm (TS/TD) and strong storm (Hurricane) were found.
Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor
Summary: Seiches in coastal bays can produce significant water level oscillations that impact maritime operations and introduce ecological stress. Monterey Bay, California is found to have wave-driven short-period oscillations that can reinforce themselves resulting in water level amplification. At longer periods the oscillations are not wave-driven and several potential forcing mechanisms are examined. A gyre offshore the bay is suggested as the driver, while other potential drivers are discounted.
Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models
Summary: Many ocean circulation models use representations of lateral mixing based on instability theories that predict weak mixing in the ocean interior, much lower than observed. We show that using more realistic mixing improves the distribution of mantle helium-3. It does not, however, resolve the paradox that models reproduce the relationship between mantle helium and radiocarbon with flux of He-3 lower than is consistent with the heat leaving the mantle.